Systèmes de change
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Justification de la conformité des logiciels et systèmes utilisés
English , French , German and "free-word-order" languages  e. When a target language has lacked terms that are found in a source language, translators have borrowed those terms, thereby enriching the target language. Thanks in great measure to the exchange of calques and loanwords between languages, and to their importation from other languages, there are few concepts that are " untranslatable " among the modern European languages. Generally, the greater the contact and exchange that have existed between two languages, or between those languages and a third one, the greater is the ratio of metaphrase to paraphrase that may be used in translating among them.
However, due to shifts in ecological niches of words, a common etymology is sometimes misleading as a guide to current meaning in one or the other language. The translator's role as a bridge for "carrying across" values between cultures has been discussed at least since Terence , the 2nd-century-BCE Roman adapter of Greek comedies.
The translator's role is, however, by no means a passive, mechanical one, and so has also been compared to that of an artist. The main ground seems to be the concept of parallel creation found in critics such as Cicero. Dryden observed that "Translation is a type of drawing after life If translation be an art, it is no easy one.
In the 13th century, Roger Bacon wrote that if a translation is to be true, the translator must know both languages , as well as the science that he is to translate; and finding that few translators did, he wanted to do away with translation and translators altogether. The translator of the Bible into German, Martin Luther — , is credited with being the first European to posit that one translates satisfactorily only toward his own language.
Kelly states that since Johann Gottfried Herder in the 18th century, "it has been axiomatic" that one translates only toward his own language. Compounding the demands on the translator is the fact that no dictionary or thesaurus can ever be a fully adequate guide in translating. The Scottish historian Alexander Tytler , in his Essay on the Principles of Translation , emphasized that assiduous reading is a more comprehensive guide to a language than are dictionaries.
The translator's special role in society is described in a posthumous essay by "Poland's La Fontaine ", the Roman Catholic Primate of Poland , poet , encyclopedist , author of the first Polish novel, and translator from French and Greek, Ignacy Krasicki:.
Due to Western colonialism and cultural dominance in recent centuries, Western translation traditions have largely replaced other traditions. The Western traditions draw on both ancient and medieval traditions, and on more recent European innovations. Though earlier approaches to translation are less commonly used today, they retain importance when dealing with their products, as when historians view ancient or medieval records to piece together events which took place in non-Western or pre-Western environments.
Also, though heavily influenced by Western traditions and practiced by translators taught in Western-style educational systems, Chinese and related translation traditions retain some theories and philosophies unique to the Chinese tradition. Traditions of translating material among the languages of ancient Egypt , Mesopotamia , Assyria Syriac language , Anatolia , and Israel Hebrew language go back several millennia.
There exist partial translations of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh c. There is a separate tradition of translation in South , Southeast and East Asia primarily of texts from the Indian and Chinese civilizations , connected especially with the rendering of religious, particularly Buddhist , texts and with the governance of the Chinese empire.
Classical Indian translation is characterized by loose adaptation, rather than the closer translation more commonly found in Europe; and Chinese translation theory identifies various criteria and limitations in translation. In the East Asian sphere of Chinese cultural influence, more important than translation per se has been the use and reading of Chinese texts, which also had substantial influence on the Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese languages, with substantial borrowings of Chinese vocabulary and writing system.
Notable is the Japanese kanbun , a system for glossing Chinese texts for Japanese speakers. Though Indianized states in Southeast Asia often translated Sanskrit material into the local languages, the literate elites and scribes more commonly used Sanskrit as their primary language of culture and government. Some of the art of classical Chinese poetry [writes Link] must simply be set aside as untranslatable.
The internal structure of Chinese characters has a beauty of its own, and the calligraphy in which classical poems were written is another important but untranslatable dimension.
Since Chinese characters do not vary in length, and because there are exactly five characters per line in a poem like [the one that Eliot Weinberger discusses in 19 Ways of Looking at Wang Wei with More Ways ], another untranslatable feature is that the written result, hung on a wall, presents a rectangle. Translators into languages whose word lengths vary can reproduce such an effect only at the risk of fatal awkwardness Another imponderable is how to imitate the , rhythm in which five- syllable lines in classical Chinese poems normally are read.
Chinese characters are pronounced in one syllable apiece, so producing such rhythms in Chinese is not hard and the results are unobtrusive; but any imitation in a Western language is almost inevitably stilted and distracting.
Even less translatable are the patterns of tone arrangement in classical Chinese poetry. Each syllable character belongs to one of two categories determined by the pitch contour in which it is read; in a classical Chinese poem the patterns of alternation of the two categories exhibit parallelism and mirroring. Once the untranslatables have been set aside, the problems for a translator, especially of Chinese poetry, are two: What does the translator think the poetic line says?
And once he thinks he understands it, how can he render it into the target language? Most of the difficulties, according to Link, arise in addressing the second problem, "where the impossibility of perfect answers spawns endless debate. At the literalist extreme, efforts are made to dissect every conceivable detail about the language of the original Chinese poem.
Chinese characters, in avoiding grammatical specificity, offer advantages to poets and, simultaneously, challenges to poetry translators that are associated primarily with absences of subject , number , and tense.
It is the norm in classical Chinese poetry, and common even in modern Chinese prose, to omit subjects ; the reader or listener infers a subject. Some Western languages, however, ask by grammatical rule that subjects always be stated. Weinberger points out, however, that when an "I" as a subject is inserted, a "controlling individual mind of the poet" enters and destroys the effect of the Chinese line. Without a subject, he writes, "the experience becomes both universal and immediate to the reader.
Nouns have no number in Chinese. Chinese verbs are tense -less: For poets, this creates the great advantage of ambiguity. According to Link, Weinberger's insight about subjectlessness—that it produces an effect "both universal and immediate"—applies to timelessness as well.
Link proposes a kind of uncertainty principle that may be applicable not only to translation from the Chinese language, but to all translation:. Dilemmas about translation do not have definitive right answers although there can be unambiguously wrong ones if misreadings of the original are involved.
Any translation except machine translation, a different case must pass through the mind of a translator, and that mind inevitably contains its own store of perceptions, memories, and values.
Translation of material into Arabic expanded after the creation of Arabic script in the 5th century, and gained great importance with the rise of Islam and Islamic empires. Arab translation initially focused primarily on politics, rendering Persian, Greek, even Chinese and Indic diplomatic materials into Arabic.
In terms of theory, Arabic translation drew heavily on earlier Near Eastern traditions as well as more contemporary Greek and Persian traditions. Arabic translation efforts and techniques are important to Western translation traditions due to centuries of close contacts and exchanges.
Especially after the Renaissance , Europeans began more intensive study of Arabic and Persian translations of classical works as well as scientific and philosophical works of Arab and oriental origins. Arabic and, to a lesser degree, Persian became important sources of material and perhaps of techniques for revitalized Western traditions, which in time would overtake the Islamic and oriental traditions. In the 19th century, after the Middle East 's Islamic clerics and copyists.
Along with expanding secular education, printing transformed an overwhelmingly illiterate society into a partly literate one. In the past, the sheikhs and the government had exercised a monopoly over knowledge. Now an expanding elite benefitted from a stream of information on virtually anything that interested them.
Between and The most prominent among them was al-Muqtataf Montesquieu 's Considerations on the Romans and Fénelon 's Telemachus had been favorites. A translator who contributed mightily to the advance of the Islamic Enlightenment was the Egyptian cleric Rifaa al-Tahtawi —73 , who had spent five years in Paris in the late s, teaching religion to Muslim students.
After returning to Cairo with the encouragement of Muhammad Ali — , the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt, al—Tahtawi became head of the new school of languages and embarked on an intellectual revolution by initiating a program to translate some two thousand European and Turkish volumes, ranging from ancient texts on geography and geometry to Voltaire 's biography of Peter the Great , along with the Marseillaise and the entire Code Napoléon.
This was the biggest, most meaningful importation of foreign thought into Arabic since Abbasid times — In France al-Tahtawi had been struck by the way the French language Yet Arabic has its own sources of reinvention. The root system that Arabic shares with other Semitic tongues such as Hebrew is capable of expanding the meanings of words using structured consonantal variations: The movement to translate English and European texts transformed the Arabic and Ottoman Turkish languages, and new words, simplified syntax , and directness came to be valued over the previous convolutions.
Educated Arabs and Turks in the new professions and the modernized civil service expressed skepticism , writes Christopher de Bellaigue , "with a freedom that is rarely witnessed today No longer was legitimate knowledge defined by texts in the religious schools, interpreted for the most part with stultifying literalness. It had come to include virtually any intellectual production anywhere in the world. One of the most influential liberal Islamic thinkers of the time was Muhammad Abduh — , Egypt's senior judicial authority—its chief mufti —at the turn of the 20th century and an admirer of Darwin who in visited Darwin's exponent Herbert Spencer at his home in Brighton.
Spencer's view of society as an organism with its own laws of evolution paralleled Abduh's ideas. After World War I , when Britain and France divided up the Middle East's countries, apart from Turkey, between them, pursuant to the Sykes-Picot agreement —in violation of solemn wartime promises of postwar Arab autonomy—there came an immediate reaction: Fidelity or "faithfulness" and transparency , dual ideals in translation, are often though not always at odds.
A 17th-century French critic coined the phrase " les belles infidèles " to suggest that translations, like women, can be either faithful or beautiful, but not both. Fidelity is the extent to which a translation accurately renders the meaning of the source text , without distortion.
Transparency is the extent to which a translation appears to a native speaker of the target language to have originally been written in that language, and conforms to its grammar, syntax and idiom. John Dryden — writes in his preface to the translation anthology Sylvae:.
Where I have taken away some of [the original authors'] Expressions, and cut them shorter, it may possibly be on this consideration, that what was beautiful in the Greek or Latin, would not appear so shining in the English; and where I have enlarg'd them, I desire the false Criticks would not always think that those thoughts are wholly mine, but that either they are secretly in the Poet, or may be fairly deduc'd from him; or at least, if both those considerations should fail, that my own is of a piece with his, and that if he were living, and an Englishman, they are such as he wou'd probably have written.
A translation that meets the criterion of fidelity faithfulness is said to be "faithful"; a translation that meets the criterion of transparency, " idiomatic ". Depending on the given translation, the two qualities may not be mutually exclusive.
The criteria for judging the fidelity of a translation vary according to the subject, type and use of the text, its literary qualities, its social or historical context, etc. The criteria for judging the transparency of a translation appear more straightforward: Nevertheless, in certain contexts a translator may consciously seek to produce a literal translation. Translators of literary , religious or historic texts often adhere as closely as possible to the source text, stretching the limits of the target language to produce an unidiomatic text.
A translator may adopt expressions from the source language in order to provide "local color". Current Western translation practice is dominated by the dual concepts of "fidelity" and "transparency".
This has not always been the case, however; there have been periods, especially in pre-Classical Rome and in the 18th century, when many translators stepped beyond the bounds of translation proper into the realm of adaptation. Adapted translation retains currency in some non-Western traditions. The Indian epic, the Ramayana , appears in many versions in the various Indian languages , and the stories are different in each.
Similar examples are to be found in medieval Christian literature, which adjusted the text to local customs and mores. Many non-transparent-translation theories draw on concepts from German Romanticism , the most obvious influence being the German theologian and philosopher Friedrich Schleiermacher.
In his seminal lecture "On the Different Methods of Translation" he distinguished between translation methods that move "the writer toward [the reader]", i. Schleiermacher favored the latter approach; he was motivated, however, not so much by a desire to embrace the foreign, as by a nationalist desire to oppose France's cultural domination and to promote German literature.
In recent decades, prominent advocates of such "non-transparent" translation have included the French scholar Antoine Berman , who identified twelve deforming tendencies inherent in most prose translations,  and the American theorist Lawrence Venuti , who has called on translators to apply "foreignizing" rather than domesticating translation strategies. The question of fidelity vs. The latter expressions are associated with the translator Eugene Nida and were originally coined to describe ways of translating the Bible , but the two approaches are applicable to any translation.
By contrast, "formal equivalence" sought via "literal" translation attempts to render the text literally, or "word for word" the latter expression being itself a word-for-word rendering of the classical Latin verbum pro verbo —if necessary, at the expense of features natural to the target language.
There is, however, no sharp boundary between functional and formal equivalence. On the contrary, they represent a spectrum of translation approaches. Each is used at various times and in various contexts by the same translator, and at various points within the same text—sometimes simultaneously.
Competent translation entails the judicious blending of functional and formal equivalents. Common pitfalls in translation, especially when practiced by inexperienced translators, involve false equivalents such as " false friends "  and false cognates. A "back-translation" is a translation of a translated text back into the language of the original text, made without reference to the original text.
Comparison of a back-translation with the original text is sometimes used as a check on the accuracy of the original translation, much as the accuracy of a mathematical operation is sometimes checked by reversing the operation.
But the results of such reverse-translation operations, while useful as approximate checks, are not always precisely reliable. In the context of machine translation , a back-translation is also called a "round-trip translation. When translations are produced of material used in medical clinical trials , such as informed-consent forms , a back-translation is often required by the ethics committee or institutional review board.
Mark Twain provided humorously telling evidence for the frequent unreliability of back-translation when he issued his own back-translation of a French translation of his short story , " The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County ".
He published his back-translation in a volume together with his English-language original, the French translation, and a "Private History of the 'Jumping Frog' Story".
The latter included a synopsized adaptation of his story that Twain stated had appeared, unattributed to Twain, in a Professor Sidgwick's Greek Prose Composition p. When a historic document survives only in translation, the original having been lost, researchers sometimes undertake back-translation in an effort to reconstruct the original text.
An example involves the novel The Saragossa Manuscript by the Polish aristocrat Jan Potocki — , who wrote the novel in French and anonymously published fragments in and — Portions of the original French-language manuscript were subsequently lost; however, the missing fragments survived in a Polish translation that was made by Edmund Chojecki in from a complete French copy, now lost.
French-language versions of the complete Saragossa Manuscript have since been produced, based on extant French-language fragments and on French-language versions that have been back-translated from Chojecki's Polish version.
A big part of the works by the highly influential Classical physician Galen survive only in medieval Arabic translation. Some of them survive only in Renaissance Latin translations from the Arabic, thus at a second remove from the original. To better understand Galen, scholars have attempted a back-translation of such works to reconstruct the original Greek. Similarly, when historians suspect that a document is actually a translation from another language, back-translation into that hypothetical original language can provide supporting evidence by showing that such characteristics as idioms , puns , peculiar grammatical structures, etc.
For example, the known text of the Till Eulenspiegel folk tales is in High German but contains puns that work only when back-translated to Low German. This seems clear evidence that these tales or at least large portions of them were originally written in Low German and translated into High German by an over-metaphrastic translator.
Similarly, supporters of Aramaic primacy —of the view that the Christian New Testament or its sources were originally written in the Aramaic language —seek to prove their case by showing that difficult passages in the existing Greek text of the New Testament make much better sense when back-translated to Aramaic: Due to similar indications, it is believed that the 2nd century Gnostic Gospel of Judas , which survives only in Coptic , was originally written in Greek.
John Dryden — , the dominant English-language literary figure of his age, illustrates, in his use of back-translation, translators' influence on the evolution of languages and literary styles. Dryden is believed to be the first person to posit that English sentences should not end in prepositions because Latin sentences cannot end in prepositions. As Latin does not have sentences ending in prepositions, Dryden may have applied Latin grammar to English, thus forming the controversial rule of no sentence-ending prepositions, subsequently adopted by other writers.
A competent translator is not only bilingual but bicultural. Logiciels de comptabilité ou de gestion ou systèmes de caisse. Conditions à respecter pour sécuriser le système Présentation des conditions. Clôture au moins annuelle du système. Détail des données de règlement à conserver. Archiver avant toute procédure de purge.
Certification du logiciel ou du système Certificat délivré par un organisme accrédité. Versions du logiciel ou du système devant être certifiées. Sanctions Amende pour défaut de justification de conformité du logiciel ou du système. Délai de soixante jours pour se mettre en conformité. Clôture de la procédure et conséquences des manquements constatés.
Usage frauduleux du logiciel ou du système révélé par un contrôle fiscal ultérieur Amendes proportionnelles. Bouton defaut Bouton ok.
En bref SARL de famille: Cela se traduit au niveau mathématique par l'impossibilité de modéliser le système par des équations prédictives solvables. Ce qui est primordial est non pas tant le nombre de facteurs ou dimensions paramètres, variables , mais le fait que chacun d'entre eux influence indirectement les autres, qui eux-mêmes l'influencent en retour , faisant du comportement du système une globalité irréductible.
Pour prévoir ce comportement, il est nécessaire de tous les prendre en compte, ce qui revient à effectuer une simulation du système étudié. Les systèmes complexes sont généralement compliqués, mais le contraire n'est pas vrai i.
Les systèmes complexes sont définis, selon les cas et selon les auteurs, par leur structure, par l'existence d'interactions non-linéaires, par l'émergence de niveaux d'organisation différents, ou par leurs comportements collectifs non triviaux multistationnarité, chaos, bifurcations, auto-organisation, émergence, boucles de rétroaction.
Certains, partant du grand nombre d'entités, insistent sur la structure, l'hétérogénéité et la présence de niveaux d'organisation, aux propriétés émergentes. D'autres insistent au contraire sur la non-linéarité et la dynamique.
Cette multiplicité des définitions a des causes objectives liées à l'hétérogénéité des objets regroupés sous le terme de systèmes complexes, qui vont de système naturels, des molécules aux sociétés humaines , jusqu'aux systèmes artificiels comme le web. Cela correspond obligatoirement à une multiplicité de points de vue, qui se recoupent tous partiellement, bien sûr, mais où l'accent n'est pas mis sur les mêmes propriétés. Ces différences sont aussi liées à des critères idéologiques ou philosophiques, particulièrement importants dans ces domaines [ 1 ].
Un système complexe est un système composé d'un grand nombre d'entités en interaction locale et simultanée. On exige le plus souvent que le système présente de plus les caractéristiques suivantes ce qui montre qu'il n'existe pas de définition formelle largement acceptée de ce qu'est un système complexe:. On constate le plus souvent que le système complexe présente la majorité des caractéristiques suivantes:. Citons encore un vol d' étourneaux ou un troupeau de moutons , la propagation d'une épidémie , d'une rumeur ou du bouche-à-oreille sur un nouveau produit, des robots modulaires , des réseaux de criminalité , le développement d'un embryon.
Donnons enfin quelques systèmes complexes artificiels: L'un des exemples les mieux formalisés est celui d'un automate cellulaire. Un système complexe présente la plupart des comportements suivants.
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