Système déchange uranus
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Mercury enters Scorpio
Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. The magnetic field and magnetosphere Like the other giant planets, Uranus has a magnetic field that is generated by convection currents in an electrically conducting interior.
The interior Although Uranus has a somewhat lower density than Jupiter , it has a higher proportion of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. Previous page Basic astronomical data. Page 3 of 6. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Uranus by accident in and Neptune in after a deliberate search following a theoretical prediction based on observed irregularities in the orbit of Uranus.
Pluto, discovered in after a search for a planet predicted to lie beyond Neptune, was considered a major…. In a series of U. Voyager 2 then went on to travel past Uranus …. Saturn, Uranus , and Neptune are much closer to cosmic composition than is Earth. They are largely gaseous, with atmospheres composed principally of hydrogen and helium. Methane, ammonia, neon, and water have been detected in smaller quantities.
The atmosphere In Neptune: Interior structure and composition solar system composition In astronomy: Study of the solar system In solar system: Composition of the solar system celestial mechanics anomalous motion In physical science: Impact of Newtonian theory discovery of Neptune In gravity: Interaction between celestial bodies In Neptune: Occultations retrograde motion In retrograde motion exploration In space exploration: Solar system exploration View More. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your feedback. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. During the original discussions following discovery, Maskelyne asked Herschel to "do the astronomical world the faver [ sic ] to give a name to your planet, which is entirely your own, [and] which we are so much obliged to you for the discovery of".
In the fabulous ages of ancient times the appellations of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn were given to the Planets, as being the names of their principal heroes and divinities. In the present more philosophical era it would hardly be allowable to have recourse to the same method and call it Juno, Pallas, Apollo or Minerva, for a name to our new heavenly body.
The first consideration of any particular event, or remarkable incident, seems to be its chronology: It would be a very satisfactory answer to say, 'In the reign of King George the Third'. Herschel's proposed name was not popular outside Britain, and alternatives were soon proposed. Astronomer Jérôme Lalande proposed that it be named Herschel in honour of its discoverer. Uranus has two astronomical symbols.
In a letter to Herschel, Lalande described it as "un globe surmonté par la première lettre de votre nom" "a globe surmounted by the first letter of your surname". Uranus is called by a variety of translations in other languages. Uranus orbits the Sun once every 84 years.
The difference between its minimum and maximum distance from the Sun is 1. In , Urbain Le Verrier began his own independent research into Uranus's orbit. On 23 September , Johann Gottfried Galle located a new planet , later named Neptune , at nearly the position predicted by Le Verrier. As on all the giant planets , its upper atmosphere experiences strong winds in the direction of rotation. At some latitudes, such as about 60 degrees south, visible features of the atmosphere move much faster, making a full rotation in as little as 14 hours.
The Uranian axis of rotation is approximately parallel with the plane of the Solar System, with an axial tilt of This gives it seasonal changes completely unlike those of the other planets.
Near the solstice , one pole faces the Sun continuously and the other faces away. Only a narrow strip around the equator experiences a rapid day—night cycle, but with the Sun low over the horizon. At the other side of Uranus's orbit the orientation of the poles towards the Sun is reversed.
Uranus reached its most recent equinox on 7 December One result of this axis orientation is that, averaged over the Uranian year, the polar regions of Uranus receive a greater energy input from the Sun than its equatorial regions. Nevertheless, Uranus is hotter at its equator than at its poles. The underlying mechanism that causes this is unknown. The reason for Uranus's unusual axial tilt is also not known with certainty, but the usual speculation is that during the formation of the Solar System, an Earth-sized protoplanet collided with Uranus, causing the skewed orientation.
The labelling of this pole as "south" uses the definition currently endorsed by the International Astronomical Union , namely that the north pole of a planet or satellite is the pole that points above the invariable plane of the Solar System, regardless of the direction the planet is spinning. The mean apparent magnitude of Uranus is 5. This range of brightness is near the limit of naked eye visibility. Much of the variability is dependent upon the planetary latitudes being illuminated from the Sun and viewed from the Earth .
Its angular diameter is between 3. Uranus's mass is roughly Its diameter is slightly larger than Neptune's at roughly four times that of Earth. A resulting density of 1.
The standard model of Uranus's structure is that it consists of three layers: The extreme pressure and temperature deep within Uranus may break up the methane molecules, with the carbon atoms condensing into crystals of diamond that rain down through the mantle like hailstones.
The bulk compositions of Uranus and Neptune are different from those of Jupiter and Saturn , with ice dominating over gases, hence justifying their separate classification as ice giants. There may be a layer of ionic water where the water molecules break down into a soup of hydrogen and oxygen ions, and deeper down superionic water in which the oxygen crystallises but the hydrogen ions move freely within the oxygen lattice.
Although the model considered above is reasonably standard, it is not unique; other models also satisfy observations. For instance, if substantial amounts of hydrogen and rocky material are mixed in the ice mantle, the total mass of ices in the interior will be lower, and, correspondingly, the total mass of rocks and hydrogen will be higher.
Presently available data does not allow a scientific determination which model is correct. The gaseous atmosphere gradually transitions into the internal liquid layers. Uranus's internal heat appears markedly lower than that of the other giant planets; in astronomical terms, it has a low thermal flux. Neptune, which is Uranus's near twin in size and composition, radiates 2.
The total power radiated by Uranus in the far infrared i. One of the hypotheses for this discrepancy suggests that when Uranus was hit by a supermassive impactor, which caused it to expel most of its primordial heat, it was left with a depleted core temperature.
Another hypothesis is that some form of barrier exists in Uranus's upper layers that prevents the core's heat from reaching the surface. Although there is no well-defined solid surface within Uranus's interior, the outermost part of Uranus's gaseous envelope that is accessible to remote sensing is called its atmosphere.
The composition of Uranus's atmosphere is different from its bulk, consisting mainly of molecular hydrogen and helium. They are probably also higher than solar values. The troposphere is the lowest and densest part of the atmosphere and is characterised by a decrease in temperature with altitude. The mixing ratio of carbon monoxide is similar at these altitudes. The concentration of hydrocarbons in the Uranian stratosphere above the haze is significantly lower than in the stratospheres of the other giant planets.
The weak cooling efficiency due to the lack of hydrocarbons in the stratosphere above 0. Temperature profile of the Uranian troposphere and lower stratosphere. Cloud and haze layers are also indicated. Zonal wind speeds on Uranus. Shaded areas show the southern collar and its future northern counterpart. The red curve is a symmetrical fit to the data. Before the arrival of Voyager 2 , no measurements of the Uranian magnetosphere had been taken, so its nature remained a mystery.
Before , scientists had expected the magnetic field of Uranus to be in line with the solar wind , because it would then align with Uranus's poles that lie in the ecliptic. Despite its curious alignment, in other respects the Uranian magnetosphere is like those of other planets: Uranus's magnetosphere contains charged particles: Many of these particles probably derive from the thermosphere. At ultraviolet and visible wavelengths, Uranus's atmosphere is bland in comparison to the other giant planets, even to Neptune, which it otherwise closely resembles.
In , Voyager 2 found that the visible southern hemisphere of Uranus can be subdivided into two regions: The cap and collar are thought to be a dense region of methane clouds located within the pressure range of 1. At the beginning of the 21st century, when the northern polar region came into view, the Hubble Space Telescope HST and Keck telescope initially observed neither a collar nor a polar cap in the northern hemisphere. In the s, the number of the observed bright cloud features grew considerably partly because new high-resolution imaging techniques became available.
The northern clouds are smaller, sharper and brighter. Some small clouds live for hours; at least one southern cloud may have persisted since the Voyager 2 flyby. The tracking of numerous cloud features allowed determination of zonal winds blowing in the upper troposphere of Uranus.
Because the collar obscures all clouds below that parallel, speeds between it and the southern pole are impossible to measure. For a short period from March to May , large clouds appeared in the Uranian atmosphere, giving it a Neptune-like appearance. Photometry over the course of half a Uranian year beginning in the s has shown regular variation in the brightness in two spectral bands , with maxima occurring at the solstices and minima occurring at the equinoxes.
There are some indications that physical seasonal changes are happening in Uranus. Although Uranus is known to have a bright south polar region, the north pole is fairly dim, which is incompatible with the model of the seasonal change outlined above.
The mechanism of these physical changes is still not clear. The brightening of the sunlit hemisphere is thought to result from the local thickening of the methane clouds and haze layers located in the troposphere.
Many argue that the differences between the ice giants and the gas giants extend to their formation. Much of the nebula's gas, primarily hydrogen and helium, formed the Sun, and the dust grains collected together to form the first protoplanets. As the planets grew, some of them eventually accreted enough matter for their gravity to hold on to the nebula's leftover gas.
The ice giants, with only a few Earth masses of nebular gas, never reached that critical point. Uranus has 27 known natural satellites. Uranus's satellites have relatively low albedos; ranging from 0.
The ice may include ammonia and carbon dioxide. Among the Uranian satellites, Ariel appears to have the youngest surface with the fewest impact craters and Umbriel's the oldest. The Uranian rings are composed of extremely dark particles, which vary in size from micrometres to a fraction of a metre. All except two rings of Uranus are extremely narrow — they are usually a few kilometres wide.
The rings are probably quite young; the dynamics considerations indicate that they did not form with Uranus. The matter in the rings may once have been part of a moon or moons that was shattered by high-speed impacts. You change up your schedule and do things differently. Work can also become erratic, with your hours changing, changing jobs routinely, working freelance, or some sort of unusual job or work environment. You can work hard for a period of time, and then lose interest for a period of time.
You need work that gives you plenty of freedom and allows you to work on your own schedule. You can become interested in unusual ways of approaching health, and take up alternative practices. Transit Uranus in the 7th House When transit Uranus is in your 7th house, you can experience change in your close relationships. Your partners can become unreliable, or you become unpredictable.
Situations can occur that instigate changes. If singe, you may be attracted to unusual people, or require an unusual relationship.
You can break up relationships quickly, but enter into them quickly as well. Your relationships could be the source of excitement, thrills, and instability in your life. Transit Uranus in the 8th House When transit Uranus is in your 8th house, the money that other people have in your life could come or go, and it has an impact on you. You may not be able to depend on them to help you out financially anymore, so you have to learn to stand on your own two feet financially.
You may undergo a sudden, unexpected transformation. The 8th house rules sex, and you can be more open to trying new things, experimentation, and things that seem taboo. When it comes to power and control, you may experience periods where you have none, and then periods where you have too much.
Transit Uranus in the 9th House When transit Uranus is in your 9th house, you can have life experiences that broaden your mind and life, but they occur unexpectedly or suddenly. You encounter people from all walks of life, and they open your mind to new ideas and ways of living.
You can study something new, but may not dedicate yourself to it for very long. You can change your beliefs suddenly, attracted to unconventional beliefs. Transit Uranus in the 10th House When transit Uranus is in your 10th house, you can experience change in your career. You may become restless and decide to change direction. Changes could be thrust upon you and you have to deal with it. You need more freedom to do what you want in your career, and can be attracted to careers that are unusual, or want to take an innovative approach to your career.
You could find yourself suddenly in the public eye or have an increase in social status, or a sudden decrease. Transit Uranus in the 11th House When transit Uranus is in your 11th house, you meet people who are different, original, inventive, and unique.
You embrace everyone for who they are, not wanting to put them in a box, so you can make plenty of new friends, but not be very close to any of them. Your view of the future may change, and your dreams for your future may become more idealistic but unusual. You want your future to be different in some way.
Transit Uranus in the 12th House When transit Uranus is in your 12th house, you take a different approach to your spirituality, and are open to unconventional beliefs. You have to learn to let go of your past and destructive habits so you can go forward into the future with less holding you back. Just watch for being too impulsive or rebellious. Be constructive with the changes that you make.
With transit Uranus sextile or trine your natal Sun, you can create change easily, and the transition can be a smooth one. Opportunities could be presented to you through a male or mentor. With transit Uranus square or opposite your natal Sun, you may feel restless and desire change in your life but not get the chance to do so, feeling trapped and restrained, or just want everything to stay exactly as it is and have nothing but upheaval.
What kind of change usually depends on you. This transit can also open up restricted outlooks. You want to be around people and situations that enliven you and anyone or anything you find boring might get the boot.
You strive to express yourself freely and be as independent as possible.
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