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Although economic history has been well established since the late 19th century, in recent years academic studies have shifted more and more toward economics departments and away from traditional history departments. It also includes biographies of individual companies, executives, and entrepreneurs.
It is related to economic history; Business history is most often taught in business schools. Environmental history is a new field that emerged in the s to look at the history of the environment, especially in the long run, and the impact of human activities upon it. World history is the study of major civilizations over the last years or so. World history is primarily a teaching field, rather than a research field.
It gained popularity in the United States,  Japan  and other countries after the s with the realization that students need a broader exposure to the world as globalization proceeds. It has led to highly controversial interpretations by Oswald Spengler and Arnold J. Toynbee , among others. A people's history is a type of historical work which attempts to account for historical events from the perspective of common people.
A people's history is the history of the world that is the story of mass movements and of the outsiders. Individuals or groups not included in the past in other type of writing about history are the primary focus, which includes the disenfranchised , the oppressed , the poor , the nonconformists , and the otherwise forgotten people.
The authors are typically on the left and have a socialist model in mind, as in the approach of the History Workshop movement in Britain in the s. Intellectual history and the history of ideas emerged in the midth century, with the focus on the intellectuals and their books on the one hand, and on the other the study of ideas as disembodied objects with a career of their own. Gender history is a sub-field of History and Gender studies , which looks at the past from the perspective of gender.
It is in many ways, an outgrowth of women's history. Despite its relatively short life, Gender History and its forerunner Women's History has had a rather significant effect on the general study of history. Since the s, when the initially small field first achieved a measure of acceptance, it has gone through a number of different phases, each with its own challenges and outcomes.
Although some of the changes to the study of history have been quite obvious, such as increased numbers of books on famous women or simply the admission of greater numbers of women into the historical profession, other influences are more subtle.
Public history describes the broad range of activities undertaken by people with some training in the discipline of history who are generally working outside of specialized academic settings.
Public history practice has quite deep roots in the areas of historic preservation, archival science, oral history, museum curatorship, and other related fields. The term itself began to be used in the U. Some of the most common settings for public history are museums, historic homes and historic sites, parks, battlefields, archives, film and television companies, and all levels of government.
Professional and amateur historians discover, collect, organize, and present information about past events. They discover this information through archaeological evidence, written primary sources from the past and other various means such as place names. In lists of historians , historians can be grouped by order of the historical period in which they were writing, which is not necessarily the same as the period in which they specialized.
Chroniclers and annalists , though they are not historians in the true sense, are also frequently included. Since the 20th century, Western historians have disavowed the aspiration to provide the "judgement of history. Pseudohistory is a term applied to texts which purport to be historical in nature but which depart from standard historiographical conventions in a way which undermines their conclusions.
Closely related to deceptive historical revisionism , works which draw controversial conclusions from new, speculative, or disputed historical evidence, particularly in the fields of national, political, military, and religious affairs, are often rejected as pseudohistory.
A major intellectual battle took place in Britain in the early twentieth century regarding the place of history teaching in the universities. At Oxford and Cambridge, scholarship was downplayed. Professor Charles Harding Firth , Oxford's Regius Professor of history in ridiculed the system as best suited to produce superficial journalists. The Oxford tutors, who had more votes than the professors, fought back in defence of their system saying that it successfully produced Britain's outstanding statesmen, administrators, prelates, and diplomats, and that mission was as valuable as training scholars.
The tutors dominated the debate until after the Second World War. It forced aspiring young scholars to teach at outlying schools, such as Manchester University, where Thomas Frederick Tout was professionalizing the History undergraduate programme by introducing the study of original sources and requiring the writing of a thesis. In the United States, scholarship was concentrated at the major PhD-producing universities, while the large number of other colleges and universities focused on undergraduate teaching.
A tendency in the 21st century was for the latter schools to increasingly demand scholarly productivity of their younger tenure-track faculty. Furthermore, universities have increasingly relied on inexpensive part-time adjuncts to do most of the classroom teaching. From the origins of national school systems in the 19th century, the teaching of history to promote national sentiment has been a high priority.
In the United States after World War I, a strong movement emerged at the university level to teach courses in Western Civilization, so as to give students a common heritage with Europe. At the university level, historians debate the question of whether history belongs more to social science or to the humanities.
Many view the field from both perspectives. The teaching of history in French schools was influenced by the Nouvelle histoire as disseminated after the s by Cahiers pédagogiques and Enseignement and other journals for teachers. Joseph Leif, the Inspector-general of teacher training, said pupils children should learn about historians' approaches as well as facts and dates.
Traditionalists protested loudly it was a postmodern innovation that threatened to leave the youth ignorant of French patriotism and national identity. In several countries history textbooks are tools to foster nationalism and patriotism, and give students the official line about national enemies. In many countries, history textbooks are sponsored by the national government and are written to put the national heritage in the most favourable light. For example, in Japan, mention of the Nanking Massacre has been removed from textbooks and the entire Second World War is given cursory treatment.
Other countries have complained. In the United States , especially the southern part history about slavery and the American Civil War are controversial topics. McGraw-Hill Education for example, was criticised for describing Africans brought to American plantations as "workers" instead of slaves in a textbook. Academic historians have often fought against the politicization of the textbooks, sometimes with success.
In 21st-century Germany, the history curriculum is controlled by the 16 states, and is characterized not by superpatriotism but rather by an "almost pacifistic and deliberately unpatriotic undertone" and reflects "principles formulated by international organizations such as UNESCO or the Council of Europe, thus oriented towards human rights, democracy and peace.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the academic discipline. For a general history of human beings, see History of the world. For other uses, see History disambiguation. Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. Near East Europe India China. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Marx's theory of history. Economic history and Business history. History of the world and Universal history. Intellectual history and History of ideas. For a more comprehensive list, see List of historians.
Ash heap of history. Outline of history and Glossary of history. The Handbook of Historical Linguistics. Blackwell Publishing published 30 December Retrieved 21 January Archived from the original on 1 February History in Focus, Issue 2: Retrieved 10 November The Pursuit of History 4th ed.
Stearns; Peters Seixas; Sam Wineburg, eds. New York University Press. Stearns; Peters Seixas; Sam Wineburg eds. Oxford University Press, December The Century dictionary; an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language. The Century Co, Dictionary of concepts in history. Reference sources for the social sciences and humanities, no. The Discipline of History and the History of Thought.
The Shape of the Past. Ancient, medieval, and modern University of Chicago Press, Iggers, Historiography in the twentieth century: From scientific objectivity to the postmodern challenge The Near East and Mesoamerica. Dawood , The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History , p. A Dictionary of Muslim Names. His Life and Works. Historical materialism is not "an historico-philosophic theory of the marche generale imposed by fate upon every people, whatever the historic circumstances in which it finds itself" Marx, Karl: La traduction devra toujours être confrontée au texte source, qui fera jurisprudence.
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